2016 - Big Data, Better Decisions, Brighter Future

Cork, Ireland, June 22-24

Proceedings edited by Sammon, D., Burstein, F., Heavin, C., Philips-Wren, G., Adam, F. & Respicio, A.


Title Pages
Agahi, F. and Dmytrenko, N.

Today’s decision management systems focus on supporting selected decisions rather than including and linking pre- and post-decision information, that is, big data. The purpose of this research was to understand how decision information is organised in an international, cross-functional organisation. This paper is an attempt to understand how a ve-element, object-oriented framework tailors decision information in the international humanitarian programme. How can chunking and organising decision information object-oriented be a way to make big data actionable? The application of the model helps to improve organising decision information.

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11-22
Ahamed, T., Lederman, R., Bosua, R., Verspoor, K., Buntine, W. and Hart, G.

Despite signi cant advances in Clinical Decision Support Systems, they have not been extensively used in nursing practice to date. One key problem is the failure of these systems to fully support actionable nursing practices that guide nurse decision-making. In addition, current work ow-related systems have failed to consider the speci c work ow challenges associated with acute-care nursing. In response to these challenges, we describe a novel three-stage approach that builds and evaluates a meta-model that addresses key requirements of multi-level guideline-based clinical nursing-speci c decision support. This research-in-progress presents the rst two stages of this approach, highlighting the importance of meta-modelling as a tool to identify the essential system-centric information that underpins acute-care nursing practice.

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23-34
Ahern, L., Feller, J. and Nagle, T.

This paper explores social media use for learning in universities, through a study of the use of Facebook Groups by undergraduate students. The objective of the research is speci cally to understand what motivates students to use Facebook Groups and what bene ts they receive from doing so. The study is grounded in the Guo et al. (2012) Student Technology Use Hierarchical Framework (STUH), drawn from Uses and Grati cations Theory (U&G), and from Means End Chain Theory (MEC). The STUH Framework was adapted by this research, and validated and revised through survey research to create an amended STUH framework for Facebook Groups. The ndings conclude that the attributes of Facebook Groups lead to interaction which in turn satis es the higher level information and decision making needs of students. The ndings have important implications for software designers and educators, as well as for researchers interested in using social networking software for learning. Overall, a better understanding of student motivations is critical to the successful implementation of such technologies in the educational arena.

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35-49
AlHarbi, A., Heavin, C. and Carton, F.

An organisation that has a robust customer interaction approach can develop a more holistic understanding of its customers. This insight is crucial for reducing related uncertainty in management decision- making. Understanding of the customer is a basic tenet for supporting decision makers in taking the right decisions. The objective of this literature review is to learn about the evolution of the customer interaction approach. The customer interaction approach is stressed as a relationship channel between the customer and organisation. The emergence of the customer interaction approach is discussed in terms of four existing approaches to customer related quality improvement:Total Quality Management (TQM); Service Quality Frameworks (SERVQUAL), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and Customer Experience Management (CEM). This analysis indicates a number of key observations about CRM and CEM as the most recent customer interaction approaches. In the existing literature, CRM and CEM are well-de ned. Distinctly, the relationship between CRM and CEM is complementary in nature. This means CRM promotes the management of customer data in a systematic way within a rm, while CEM reaches beyond the boundary of the organisation to support a holistic customer interaction approach underpinned by CRM data.

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50-63
Alhassan, I., Sammon, D. and Daly, M.

Data governance is an emerging subject in the information system (IS) eld. In recent years, the volume of data used within organisations has increased dramatically, playing a critical role in business operations. This paper explores the current literature on data governance and is intended to provide a comprehensive analysis of the activities involved in data governance. Six major academic databases in the IS domain were searched using key terms to identify and analyse material re ecting the current state of knowledge. A systematic procedure was developed to identify 31 papers that explicitly mention data governance activities. Open coding techniques were applied to conduct content analysis, resulting in 110 data governance activities across ve decision domains of the data governance framework. These data governance activities are understood as: ‘action’ plus ‘area of governance’ plus ‘decision domain’ e.g. (de ne data policies for data quality). Our analysis shows a high volume of data governance activities associated with the ‘de ning’ action of the areas of governance across the decision domains with a lack of reported on the ‘implementing’ and ‘monitoring’ actions.

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64-75
Amaye, A., Neville, K. and Pope, A.

Many governmental agencies are currently engaged in activities to improve access to information which are encouraging recent Big Data (BD) trends. However, determining and demonstrating the bene t to emergency management information systems (EMIS) users has yet been realised. EMIS are critical to navigating a complex network of disparate IS used for real time, coordinated decision-making among agencies. Two signi cant challenges to incorporating BD analytical, visual, and predictive capabilities are mutual acceptance and system integration. This paper looks at the underlying principles of organisational mindfulness (OM) demonstrated in the convergence of EM processes, systems, and organisations in decision-making. The investigation proposes a design science research in information systems (DSRIS) approach to build an IS artefact for EMIS evaluation. Critical immediacy of information and decisions require adherence to processes which build capabilities to support EMIS users. This adds a layer of complexity to ISDT for EMIS, yet may equally lead to broader BD acceptance and integration.

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76-84
Carton, F., Hynes, T. and Adam, F.

With an increased emphasis on cost reduction and device agnosticism, Chief Information O cers (CIOs) increasingly struggle to justify investments in technology, typically lacking a vision linking those investments (in applications, infrastructure or integration) with value to business decision makers. Without guidance from a proper model of custodianship for enterprise wide master data, both structured and unstructured, exploring and exploiting value from the information assets of the enterprise becomes problematic. This paper uses a case study on management decision-making in a corporate environment to illustrate the fragmentation of enterprise data models, and argues for a di erent approach to understanding the value of data in organisations, where enterprise data assets are conceptualised in their entirety rather than from within application silos. It is proposed that data access should be governed in a centralised and secure manner, such that decision support applications consuming that data can be created quickly and economically. In this scenario, CIO attention is re- dispositioned from infrastructure maintenance to business decision value.

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85-95
Carton, F., Brezillon, P. and Feller, J.

The self is increasingly digitised, manifesting as a number of identities, accounts or pro les related to engagement with social, public and commercial services. These identities are multiplied across the civic, social, commercial, professional and personal contexts of their use, and the vulnerabilities of this atomised citizen are not well understood. This paper discusses the intellectual, organisational and social trends that underpin the emergence of the digital self. Building on this, the paper conceptualises the nature of the digital self and the value exchange and decision-making contexts in which it resides and acts. The conceptualisation is discussed in order to articulate a proposed agenda of research questions for the decision support systems, information systems, and related research communities.

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96-105
Doyle, C., Neville, K. and Sammon, D.

Collaborative technologies such as Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) were proclaimed to be able to impact the learning environments of educational institutions twenty years ago. It was understood that these technologies were e ective at transforming learning environments from a traditional approach to a collaborative one, where the learner is part of the learning process, but little has actually changed in this time. New generations of these collaborative technologies often emerge, and the platforms of social media are one such technology. In a similar fashion to previous collaborative technologies, social media have been proclaimed as impacting the learning environments of educational institutions through better communication and collaboration, in new and exciting ways. However, there is a lack of understanding on whether the platforms of social media are e ective at enabling collaborative learning. This study helps improve this understanding by analysing two types of social media enabled collaborative learning environments (SMECLEs).

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106-124
Doyle, C., Sammon, D. and Neville, K.

To conduct design science research (DSR) it is expected that some form of process model must be used, where each stage is explicitly outlined in the presentation of the research, with clear explanations. Since very few, if any, papers actually produces and presents DSR in such a manner, this provides an excellent opportunity to do so. Thus, this paper introduces a case study, where a DSR process model is utilised to produce and present DSR, where the focus is on building an evaluation framework for social media enabled collaborative learning environments (SMECLEs). This approach is imitable by other researchers who wish to produce high quality DSR, and present it in a fashion that is both easy to read, and understand, which helps to increase the standard of DSR being produced and presented.

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125-144
Clarke, P., Tyrrell, G. and Nagle, T.

The governance of Data Consumers is a concept that is emerging in Self-Service Analytics environments. This paper provides a matrix that allows organisations to pre or post assess the relationship between Self-Service Analytics and the governance of Data Consumers. The authors used Grounded Theory methodology as the means of undertaking this research. In doing so, initial high-level concepts (Governance and Self-Service Analytics) were de ned from the literature and further expanded upon through the course of the study. As a result, emerging sub-categories were identi ed and provided the basis of an assessment matrix for the governance of Self-Service Analytics (GOSSA). In addition, the framework also highlights four key types of governance: transitional, strategic, open, and sensitive. Moreover, as well as being a new tool for practitioners the study adds to a sparsely populated research domain.

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145-159
Collins, M., Neville, K., Hynes, W. and Madden, M.

“Social media is now the most e cient method of delivering emergency response messages in a contemporary urban crisis scenario. In the immediate aftermath of an event, valuable spatially- related information can often be di cult to pinpoint in the melee of unhelpful or speculative social media ‘noise’. This paper explores the increasing need to be rst, right and credible in the midst of unveri ed, speculative reports. Social media has changed the meaning of public participation and crisis response teams must now utilise the most popular media platforms to gain a foothold within the confusion of an unfolding catastrophic event Original research carried out by University College, Cork as part of the EU-funded S-HELP (Securing Health, Emergency, Learning, Planning) FP7 project has identi ed that in the 18 to 21-year-old age group, 33% would rely on social media as their initial source of information during a large-scale crisis event. A further 33% identi ed digital media news outlets as their rst source of information. Both of these mediums rely heavily on reports and descriptions from rst responders. This paper will look at the ongoing work of the S-HELP Project which is developing a suite of tools to aid decision-making in large-scale disasters, and speci cally the development of the Crisis Communication Tool (CCT) and its potential to give an emergency response team immediate control of an unfolding event. Through the use of these communication methods, emergency responders can rapidly understand the scope of a crisis situation and deliver appropriate messages to stakeholders which can be adapted according to developments in the situation.

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160-170
Conrado, S. P., Neville, K., Woodworth, S. and O’Riordan, S.

Recent emergencies have shown the positive impact of using social media and social networks for communicating and exchanging information. Citizens and authorities can make safer decisions during emergencies based on the real-time information available on social media. Decision-making starts with information gathering and social media provides the opportunity to inform multiple citizens at once. However, message and source uncertainty can place emergency stakeholders in a risky position, as it is not always possible to know if messages are accurate, rumours or even malicious. Current approaches for social media information veri cation focuses on technical resources like analytical packages. Little research has been developed to provide citizens and eld workers with tools to evaluate social media information. This paper presents research in progress for developing a veri cation framework – for all emergency stakeholders – to support their decision-making process by managing social media uncertainty during emergencies.

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171-181
Costello, J., Feller, J. and Sammon, D.

This paper is an autoethnographic account of the governance of a large decision-making community responsible for the data requirements for the Irish Agri-food industry. The primary author was the leader in a major stakeholder organisation within this decision- making programme. The programme is currently used to underpin the regulatory compliance, quality, and sustainability of Irish food. The programme is recognised worldwide as innovative and the data is trusted at national and international levels by all members of the community. The decision-making process for this programme was complex with many stakeholders and diverse interests. The paper re ects upon and analyses the key concepts emerging from this personal study and triangulates the re ections and analysis to the key network orchestration activities outlined by Dhanaraj and Parkhe (2006), namely, knowledge mobility, appropriability and network stability. Key points emerge from these re ections, with some new insights arising from the autoethnographic account which imply the need for future research.

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182-197
Csáki, C., Meredith, R., O’Donnell, P. and Adam, F.

From its foundation in 1981, the goal of the International Federation of Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 8.3 has been to share ideas about the design, development, use, and impact of systems intended to support decision makers and about the process of decision-making – in other words, to contribute to the accumulation of knowledge in the eld of decision support systems (DSS). The working group organised its rst conference in 1982 and up to 2014, the group has held twenty major conferences with published proceedings. These proceedings include over six hundred papers authored by researchers from over fty countries. This paper presents the story of the group and the contribution of its members via a bibliometric analysis of the conference corpus. This analysis examines the themes and domains of the papers published by the working group over the decades. This includes statistics on the country, institutional and individual contributions as well as citations and referencing history. The paper concludes with a systematic review of the contribution of the international community of researchers who have become members of the working group over the years.

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198-215
Daly, M.

The organisational decision making environment is complex and decision makers must deal with uncertainty and ambiguity on a continuous basis. Managing and handling decision problems and implementing a solution requires an understanding of the complexity of the decision domain to the point where the problem and its complexity as well as the requirement for supporting decision makers, can be described. This papers presents a synthesis of the ideal of what information supply should be and the information demand that decision makers require. A model is presented which links management decision making information demand and information supply. The model facilitates a more re ned perception of the decision making landscape of an organisation, and a corresponding de nitive avenue for the development of decision support dedicated to the di erent levels that have been revealed by the application of a cognitive representation model.

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216-227
Drosio, S. and Stanek, S.

The explosive growth of the Big Data concept and its applications in multiple domains of human activity has increased interest in the bene ts it could o er to public services. The paper seeks to emphasise the added value that stems from the use of Big Data in handling heterogeneous data sources accessed by crisis management structures. Authors wants to highlight the ways in which the concept could support decision makers during the crisis management process by showing two cases. First authors’ own creation known as Hybrid Decision Support System for Crisis/Disaster Management. Second, showing application of Big Data in security management to illustrate the implications of using Big Data in practice. In case of that the Big Data is a term that is vendor driven and creates more confusing than clarity author’s conclusion brings together critical observations and judgments voiced in the paper using SWOT analysis toll and providing a blueprint for further development of the concept of Big Data in the area of Crisis/Disaster management.

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228-239
Feng, S. and Hossain, L.

Social media, an open and free platform containing large volume of user-generated content (UGC) is an ideal data source to achieve risk- informed decisions for epidemics. The probability and predictive value of how social systems deal with epidemics can be conceptually and empirically studied by monitoring social media data for formulating risk-informed decisions in improving preparedness and response to epidemics. ILI (in uenza-like illness) surveillance by monitoring social media data o ers opportunity to provide early warning signs for improving public health interventions. In this research, we monitored Weibo, a Chinese social media data on swine u in 2011 to analyse the post content, the correlation with o cial surveillance data as well as geography distribution in order to verify whether Weibo is an e ective platform for conducting risk-informed decision for epidemics.

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240-247
Fitzgerald, C., McCarthy, S., Carton, F., Connor, Y. O., Lynch, L. and Adam, F.

Big Data promises bene ts for society as well as business. Do policy makers know how best to use this scale of data driven decision- making in an e ective way for citizens? Citizen participation is portrayed in literature as a key component in policy decision- making. Yet, this decision-making process to date is often driven by other stakeholders such as scienti c experts, academic institutions, national and international governing bodies, to name but a few. Furthermore, there is scant literature on the best way to create policy for new technology, taking into consideration the voice of the citizen. The prevailing question, therefore, is what extent does citizen participation in decision-making make a di erence to shaping policy for technology? Our paper explores an experimental method for citizens to make a di erence to European policy decision-making on the future of technology and the impact on society. Employing a case study of Irish citizens as part of the CIMULACT (Citizen and Multi- Actor Consultation on Horizon 2020) project this paper reports a new methodology for gathering citizens’ perspectives on future decision- making policies on technology. The ndings reveal key advantages and disadvantages to this methodology. This paper makes a number of contributions to both the academic and practitioner communities.

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248-260
Gleasure, R. and Grace, A.

Healthcare systems have been evolving towards more decentralised, patient- empowered, and holistic approaches. This places a greater expectation on patients to monitor and report changes in their general wellness so they can make decisions as to when to seek clinical interventions. However, ndings from this study suggest individuals nd it challenging to detect deteriorations in wellness, due to the vast and multifaceted nature of the concept, the gradual onset of symptoms, and the di culty in articulating change. Thus a mobile application is developed to help users with these issues. The design of this mobile application draws upon existing cognitive neuroscience research on change detection, both for external stimuli and internal ‘interoceptive’ sensations. This highlights several key factors to be considered, if wellness-related decision-making is to be supported. In particular, this identi es the role of patients’ top-down (attentional) and bottom-up (less-voluntary) processes for detecting wellness deteriorations.

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261-273
Hossain, L., Kong, F. and Wigand, R. T.

We suggest that e ective management of Ebola disaster and public health preparedness needs to focus on connecting the dots among di erent originating points of the spread using locally situated knowledge through community partnership networks so that the wider transmission to other geographic locations can be managed e ectively and in a timely manner. E ective management of outbreaks, like the current West African 2014 Ebola epidemic, is dependent on public health preparedness. In this study, a systematic analysis of the spread during the months of March to October 2014 was performed using data from the Programme for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED) and the Factiva database. This study aims to draw network connections of individuals/groups from a localised to a globalised transmission of Ebola using reported suspected/ probable/con rmed cases at di erent locations around the world. Public health preparedness can be strengthened by understanding the social network connections between responders (such as local health authorities) and spreaders (infected individuals and groups). Using data from ProMED and other media could be useful in improving the individual and organisational networks (i.e. forming stronger community partnerships) in developing settings to respond to an outbreak before an International Health Emergency has to be declared.

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274-289
Kasraian, L., Sammon, D. and Grace, A.

During service co-production, the rm and the customer jointly participate in design and delivery of the service by leveraging the customer’s knowledge and preferences to individually tailor the service for the customer. Here, the main challenge is how a rm’s project team may accomplish modi cations to meet the customers’ needs within the required timeframe. Thus, this research paper explores the role of project team’s core capabilities during the IS/ IT service co-production lifecycle stages across three case studies. The paper contributes to theory by presenting a matrix model which maps the core capabilities against IS/IT service co-production lifecycle stages. The study also contributes to practice, speci cally where rms are looking to enhance their in-house core capabilities in order to improve their IS/IT service co-production involvement with their customers.

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290-301
Lane, S., O’Raghallaigh, P. and Sammon, D.

Requirements gathering in Information Systems is a critical part of any project, as any issues with the elicited requirements have an impact on the project as a whole and in some cases can lead to project failure. To address the issues with gathering e ective requirements this paper proposes viewing the requirements gathering process as a human centred journey. The journey being critical to the requirements gathering experience of participants. This allows for a better understanding of the requirements gathering process and its e ectiveness. This study helps with the decision-making process by assisting with engineering an e ective requirements gathering approach which ultimately follows a design science approach and its objective is to build a prototype of a‘requirements gathering journey’ canvas.

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302-312
Magee, B., Sammon, D., Nagle, T. and O’Raghallaigh, P.

Data visualisation is a key tool to drive both end user adoption and change management activities within data initiatives and especially so in sales environments. Data is as much a part of the problem as the solution itself. There’s too much of it, it’s di cult to interpret and sellers hold on to tactical workload out of distrust in the data systems they are provided with. A data-driven approach to the sales engagement cycle can fundamentally improve performance. Using an analytical approach to determine client needs and sales ‘signals’, sales engagement can be tuned to be in sync with market needs. However, a range of technical, organisational and cultural issues need to be addressed before such a solution can truly start to deliver results. A prototype has been developed and implemented within IBM Digital Sales Europe to test the e ectiveness of a data-driven approach to territory management. Buy-in to the value proposition has been strong in principal but getting seller engagement and manager attention has been challenging. The pull of the standard approach with clients is strong, seller time is at a premium and users are very unforgiving of ill-considered experiments within their working day. After a series of iterations, it was discovered that improvements in the visualisation component of the data-project were transformative. It allowed sellers see meaning in the data for the rst time and it helped them to build e ective sales narratives for partners and clients alike. It helped managers to see patterns and take course correction action and it helped build dialogue and relationships throughout the sales ecosystem.Visualisation also became a potent agent for change itself. It ‘surfaced’ and shed light on a range of problems that had gone unnoticed, undiagnosed or simply ignored. It raised questions for the sales organisation, forced trade-o s and started to drive more informed decision-making.This paper concludes that data initiatives require considerable transformation e ort to be successful. In this context, visualisation serves as the ice-breaker carving a path through hidden and complex problems in need of change, simplifying choices and highlighting the opportunity costs ahead.

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313-328
Mahony, C., Sammon, D. and Heavin, C.

This paper proposes that to create superior information resources that meet the information needs of the target audience, a greater understanding of information processing is required. We suggest that the subjective assessment criteria that information-seekers use to process information resources and the information they contain can be used to produce design guidelines for online information resources. This is tested using data from a participant in an eighteen- month longitudinal study of expectant and new mothers. From our participant, three information resource assessment criteria (convenience, credibility, and format) and ve information assessment criteria (complete, easy to understand, references, relevance and reliability) were identi ed. These eight criteria were used to generate design guidelines to meet the needs of our participant. This article provides an analysis tool that can be used by other researchers to collect and analyse subjective assessment criteria.

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329-342
Mazor, I., Heart, T. and Even, A.

Overcrowding at EDs is a world known problem which negatively a ects the quality of medical care. It is evident, for example, by long patients’ waiting times. EDs frequently use average patients’ length of stay (LOS) as a performance indicator. Long LOS is commonly correlated with overcrowding. In this research, a prototype of an electronic online digital dashboard, termed operational BI, was developed following the Design Science Research methodology. The system is targeted to be used by the ED sta . Simulation was used to assess if such a system, which displays ED’s critical data in a dashboard visualisation, can decrease LOS, thereby ease EDs’ overcrowding. Six scenarios were simulated, depicting various use patterns. The results show a potential decrease of 34–44% in average LOS, depending on the use pattern. These are promising results that call for further, real- world examination of the system.

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343-353
McCarthy, S., O’Raghallaigh, P., Woodworth, S., Lim, Y. L., Kenny, L. C. and Adam, F.

The healthcare sector is a highly regulated environment that is subject to numerous constraints. Standards around medical protocol, medical device certi cation, and data protection ensure that the wellbeing and privacy of patients is protected during all encounters with the healthcare system. However, a gap has opened up between the need to meet these constraints, improve performance, and also deliver good patient experience. For example, the medical protocol for hypertension during pregnancy establishes a set of clinically validated treatment guidelines, but does not consider the unique nature of patient experience. We assert that design research principles can be used to create visual tools that pay homage to these constraints and performance improvement goals without compromising patient experience. In this paper, we describe such a tool that has been developed during a healthcare project using a human-centred design research approach. The integrated tool for patient journey mapping addresses the shortcomings of existing methodologies by supporting multidisciplinary practitioners in designing healthcare solutions that meet the demands of existing constraints, performance improvement, and patient experience. In addition, we document how patient journey maps were used on the project to facilitate collaboration among a team of multidisciplinary stakeholders.

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354-368
Nagle, T. and Sammon, D.

This paper sets out the development of a Design Research Canvas through engagements with data and decision support practitioners. This is in direct response to the lack of tools for practitioners in crossing the practice research divide. Designed, built and evaluated within the context of an Executive Education programme, version 1 of the canvas is demonstrated. Initial results depict positive utility and e ectiveness in completing a Design Research project. In addition, the evaluation of version 1 guided the development of an improved version 2 of the canvas. Moreover, the canvas itself provides a useful aid for practitioners, researchers and teachers involved in Design Research. Furthermore, being itself an example of Design Research, this study highlights some key insights on the process, such as early stage evaluations.

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369-380
Neville, K., O’Riordan, S., Pope, A., Rauner, M., Maria, R., Madden, M., Sweeney, J., Nussbaumer, A., McCarthy, N. and O‘Brien, C.

Developing decision support systems for emergency situations is a complex and challenging task. These di culties are compounded further in the case of cross-border emergencies, which often require the coordination and collaboration of independent agencies. These agencies have di erent structures and resources in place, and follow their own internal policies and procedures. If a number of countries have been a ected, agencies may not even share the same language. Large-scale disasters, whether natural, deliberate, or accidental do not respect borders and come with a high risk to human life and a variety of economic and health impacts. Thus, it is the aim of the S-HELP (Securing-Health Emergency Learning Planning) project to develop a decision support tool-set that supports multi-agency decision-making during cross-border emergencies. S-HELP seeks to provide a tool-set that supports rapid and e ective decision- making across all stages of the emergency management lifecycle (i.e. mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery). To address the challenges associated with multi-agency emergency management, a holistic framed approach to healthcare preparedness, response, and recovery is proposed. This holistic framework has been created to guide the development of the S-HELP solution. The framework integrates a number of components important in the phased iterative development of an emergency management decision support system, such as, interoperability standards, risk communication, spatial data management, agile development, healthcare responder training, and scenario development for system evaluation.

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381-396
Nguyen, H. D. and Poo, D. C. C.

With the rapid advancement of mobile technologies, mobile health is going through a massive digital revolution that is reshaping the current way of health decision making. This study takes initiatives to investigate the manifestation of shared decision making model in mobile health for better decision quality and outcome. Hence, we propose an Activity Theory-driven framework for analysing mobile health management to achieve informed health choices. It establishes strong theoretical foundations and comprehensive requirements for designing mobile health interventions in the direction of supportive and collaborative decision making. The study contributes to the cumulative theoretical development of mobile health and shared decision making. It also provides an agenda for automated mobile health and a number of implications for academic bodies, healthcare practitioners, and developers of mobile health.

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397-409
O’ Connor, Y., Ryan, D., Hardy, V., Thompson, M., Tsung-Shu Wu, J., Heavin, C. and O’ Donoghue, J.

The objective of this paper is to explore the perceptions of key stakeholders involved and/or a ected by existing paper-based decision support guidelines (known as Community Case Management (CCM)) and a proposed digitised mobile clinical decision support system (CDSS) of CCM in rural settings of Malawi, Africa. Data was collected using eld notes and semi-structured interviews with 17 key stakeholders (i.e. clinical, technical, development aid support (NGO), government and community health workers both in Malawi, Europe and USA). Stakeholders provide a rich insight into the variety of both perceived bene ts and challenges of the existing guidelines and the proposed electronic CDSS. It was found that all stakeholders believe that the CDSS will improve adherence to guidelines and subsequently result in better care for children. It is further envisioned that the time needed for administration with the current paper-based approach could be reduced using electronic, as opposed to manual, collation and sending of records. This paper acts to underpin the rationale and motivation for the development and rollout of an electronic CDSS to support community health workers in their assessment, classi cation and treatment of young children in rural settings in Malawi, Africa.

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410-420
Organ, D. and O’Flaherty, B.

Intuition, which ranges in style from a ective to inferential to holistic (Pretz et al. 2014) can play a central role in decision-making, as decision makers must often balance intuition with rational analytical thinking. This paper explores the in uence of intuition based decision style diversity on both the emergence of transactive memory systems (TMS) and team performance in an entrepreneurial setting. The uncertainty of an entrepreneurial setting leads to a greater emphasis on intuitive thinking in the team context. However, intuition as a basis for decision-making manifests itself in a variety of forms. And not all forms of intuitive tendencies lend themselves to a team decision- making context that is cohesive, or to decisions that are strategically coherent. Given that a diversity of intuitive tendencies is likely to be found in every team setting, and as such may exert a considerable in uence on the decision-making process, we develop hypotheses in order to investigate the nature of this in uence. Drawing on data collected from 188 participants across 22 countries and split into 48 entrepreneurial ICT teams, our ndings show strong support for the in uence of intuitive decision style diversity on both team level states and team performance. The explanatory model developed has signi cant implications for contemporary understanding of decision- making teams, deep-level diversity, the entrepreneurial process, and TMS research.

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421-435
Osuszek, L., Stanek, S. and Twardowski, Z.

Big data is transforming the world, and it’s especially changing the way in which modern enterprises conduct business and strategic, informed decisions. By incorporate big data analysis, organisations can make decisions based on facts rather than intuition or hidden internal knowledge. When decision makers and knowledge workers have access to increasingly accurate and up-to-date trusted source of information, along with the analytical tools to make sense of it, their organisations bene t from more informed decisions and more consistent outcomes than ever before. This approach for supporting decisions can a ect overall company’s business and the way knowledge workers do their jobs. Analytic tools took insights from big sets of data. They help broaden the context and background available for making informed, accurate, and consistent decisions. This research renders how Big Data analysis can extend the DSS part of the Adaptive Case Management (ACM) systems. Authors of the article discusses the thesis that by merging analytical tools, exible process management and access to all required information into a single application - organisations can use big data to help improve the way they do business.

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436-449
Phillips-Wren, G., Doran, R. and Merrill, K.

The talent acquisition process involves complex interactions between potential job seekers and the enterprises that seek to ultimately employ them. Although both parties are aligned to produce an optimal outcome, the emergence of social media technologies and a workforce adept at using them o ers new challenges for companies. At the same time, studies of millennials (i.e. people born from the early 1980s to 2000) reveal that they are a large demographic currently seeking employment and that one of their characteristics is a values- orientation (i.e. wanting their jobs and companies to make a di erence in the world). Just as talent managers are recognising the changing attitudes of their potential workforce, companies are becoming aware that they need to seek talent proactively rather than relying on traditional job postings. Social media strategies provide opportunities for companies to reach out to today’s job seekers by using new types of engagement through direct contact and personalization. This paper investigates opportunities and challenges in utilising social media during the recruitment process based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the understand-deliver-measure cycle. We present two case studies with a large and mid-sized rm to illustrate how companies can utilise social media to create a value proposition for job seekers and personalise content to enhance talent acquisition.

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450-462
Safwan, E. R., Meredith, R. and Burstein, F.

Business Intelligence (BI) systems are an important part of many organisations’ IT portfolios. While the evolutionary nature of other kinds of decision support technology has been noted, there is little research investigating the evolutionary nature of BI systems. This paper presents a case study of a BI system development in a large Australian healthcare institution and uses evolutionary theories from decision support systems (DSS) to understand the system evolution observed. The paper concludes that the theories describing evolution in DSS can also be e ectively applied to BI as well. BI practitioners and developers should be aware of evolutionary triggers, as well as the di erent kinds of evolution that can a ect BI system evolution.

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463-475
Sharma, V., Stranieri, A., Burstein, F., Warren, J., Daly, S., Patterson, L., Yearwood, J. and Wolff, A.

Recent studies have demonstrated that Multi-Disciplinary Meetings (MDM) practiced in some medical contexts can contribute to positive health care outcomes. The group reasoning and decision-making in MDMs has been found to be most e ective when deliberations revolve around the patient’s needs, comprehensive information is available during the meeting, core members attend and the MDM is e ectively facilitated. This article presents a case study of the MDMs in cancer care in a region of Australia. The case study draws on a group reasoning model called the Reasoning Community model to analyse MDM deliberations to illustrate that many factors are important to support group reasoning, not solely the provision of pertinent information. The case study has implications for the use of data analytics in any group reasoning context.

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476-485
Shrestha, A., Cater-Steel, A. and Toleman, M.

The IT Service Management (ITSM) industry has de ned processes as best practices in the widely-accepted IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL®) framework. However, there are few tools available to provide decision support to IT Service Managers who wish to improve service management processes. It is essential to assess the current capability of processes before process improvements are planned. Our research addressed the problems of the lack of transparency and the need for e ciency in ITSM process assessment. Using the Design Science Research methodology, we developed an innovative Software-mediated Process Assessment (SMPA) approach that automates assessment of ITSM processes and supports the decision- making of IT Service Managers. The SMPA approach includes process selection, an online survey to collect assessment data, measurement of process capability and speci c recommendations for managers to commence process improvement. We implemented a decision support system (DSS) to automate the SMPA approach and evaluated it at two IT service providers. The evaluations indicated that the SMPA approach supports decision-making on process improvements. In the future, data analytics performed on the assessment data can help IT managers to analyse and visualise the ‘big data’ of process knowledge.

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486-499
Tona, O., Leidner, D. and Carlsson, S. A.

IT champions have considerable in uence on the adoption of a new technology in organisations. A champion engages in a new technology and uses in uential tactics to sell and implement it in the organisation. While the importance of IT champions is well documented, very little is understood about how a champion makes sense of a new technology and what sources of beliefs in uence the technology commitment of an IT champion. Using an organisation vision lens at the individual level of analysis, this study investigates individuals who championed the adoption of mobile business intelligence (m- BI) in their organisations. Our qualitative analysis suggests that the m- BI organising vision in uences IT champions through their m-BI perception and organisational needs perception as they engage in the process of identifying and making sense of the potential of m-BI. Furthermore, an IT champion actively participates and contributes in the organising vision discourse.

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500-511
O’Leary, D. E.

Recently, Tom Davenport declared that ‘... knowledge management isn’t dead, but it’s gasping for breath.’This declaration is investigated from an historical perspective, tracing some previous statements of knowledge management’s death back to the mid 2000’s. Then this paper investigates this declaration in the context of three emerging technologies and their potential contributions to knowledge management: social media / enterprise social media, crowdsourcing and IBM Watson-like systems. We also examine evidence that knowledge management creates value and the extent to which knowledge management actually is needed. If knowledge management is dead then some very similar idea is needed and would create value.

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512-526
Bosua, R., Lederman, R. and Van Zyl, K.

The global increase of adult mental illness (Dementia and Alzheimer) in the 65 years and older age group, pose unique treatment challenges to residential aged care facility sta . Current residential aged care mental illness treatment plans for elderly adults are not customised according to individual personal needs. Such customization requires inputs from multiple stakeholders i.e. mentally ill adults, carers, medical professionals and clinicians, community mental healthcare service providers, family/relatives and friends. This research aims to develop an integrated ICT framework that supports customised treatment plans for adults with mental illness in residential aged care facilities. This research-in-progress outlines initial stages of a novel methodology to better support and enable individual care and treatment of adults with mental illness in residential aged care facilities. Application of this methodology will 1) identify key information needs for individualised mental illness treatment plans, 2) integrate and consolidate multiple information sources, 3) enhance aged care facility carers’ experience and understanding of the impact of mental illness on human behaviour, and 4) implement innovative ICT solutions that support individualised care and treatment plans.

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527-535
Eze, E., Gleasure, R. and Heavin, C.

The quality of healthcare in developing countries remains a critical issue, due in part to the limited infrastructure and resources available. The development of mHealth systems has been proposed as a possible solution. These systems extend the reach of medical care into rural areas by integrating smartphones and other mobile devices. Yet it is not clear how mHealth solutions designed and tested for use in one developing region can be adapted for use in others. This research- in-progress study frames this problem using a sociomaterial/coping perspective. A case study is proposed to extend and re ne this model.

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536-541
Keenan, P.

Bibliographic databases allow the examination of aggregate trends in academic publication. This paper uses bibliographic techniques to examine the discipline background of papers in the Web of Science database which have ‘decision support system’ as a keyword. This research indicates that in the period 1980 to 2014 that DSS related publications have become evident in a more diverse set of disciplines. The research also shows that environmental and medical disciplines are becoming more important relative to the business and engineering domains that predominated in the earlier years of DSS.

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542-549
Kouamou, G. E., Manjia, M. B. and Pettang, C.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is gradually imposed as the backbone of Information Systems for companies. They o er modules to manage the various business activities of organisations: sales, inventory, purchasing, supply chain, etc. By addressing the speci c case of civil engineering companies, we realise that the core of their business must be fully taken into account, since each construction site is considered as an agency of the contractor for the period of the contract. That is why the management of construction sites must be integrated in their ERP. But one notes that this activity, in developing countries, is in uenced by speci c methods of recruitment of manpower and a fuzzy process of administrative bills payments. This study is conducted to improve the monitoring of projects and provide a module in the ERP to manage the construction sites, especially in a context dominated by the informal economy.

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550-557
McCarthy, N., Neville, K., Pope, A., Gallagher, A., Nussbaumer, A. and Steiner, C. M.

Errors in decision-making worldwide highlight the need for training in decision-making. The unpredictability and complexity of emergencies makes training in every possible emergency impossible. Rather than training in speci c examples of major emergency events, training in a decision-making skill set will provide a method of response that will be transferable to all emergencies. Various scenarios will support the training as a decision needs a context for application. The resulting educational tool will focus on emergency services at the strategic and tactical levels in the response stage of an emergency. The continual engagement of stakeholder should result in a purpose-built training course. Design science research approach will be utilised, investigating connections between theories of cognitive load and expert performance. Key aspects of the developed training course will include the concepts of metrics, deliberate practice and pro ciency based progression, to ensure an appropriate training programme rather than a mere educational experience.

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558-565
McCarthy, P., Sammon, D. and O’Raghallaigh, P.

There are many di erent types of executive education o erings on the market. These o erings vary in title, duration, accreditation, content, focus, etc.; however, all of these o erings present a common challenge (to those designing them) around the likelihood of their success. For the purposes of this study we are focusing on university accredited executive masters programmes. Existing research over the past 20 years has highlighted certain areas of importance with regard to the design of such executive programmes, from engaging with relevant stakeholders to addressing key elements in the programme design. However, notwithstanding this there is a lack of research providing a comprehensive insight into these key elements of design from all relevant stakeholders’ perspectives. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to adopt a multi-case study approach to address this research gap. The ndings from this research will be targeted speci cally at those stakeholders designing university accredited executive masters programmes, most often referred to as the programme directors. Our research will provide these decision makers with an executive programme design matrix that will contain the key questions that should be asked and answered by the programme director as they design their university accredited executive masters programme.

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566-571
Munro, D. L. and Madan, M. S.

This research-in-progress paper describes a study of data mining using historical manufacturing test data at an electronic circuit board assembly rm. The purpose of this data mining is to determine, if in a multi-step manufacturing process at small and medium manufacturing rm downstream production problems can be identi ed and prevented by evaluating up stream data. While quantitative analysis and data mining have been used in manufacturing, the scope of their application is generally limited to a speci c step or process that is a rst order analysis of the data.

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572-577
Power, D. J.

Privacy, surveillance, and government abuse of data are concerns of many people in our complex digital world. ‘Big Brother’ in the title of this article is a metaphorical warning about the consequences if government uses modern technologies to maintain power and control people. Issues related to the abuse of data and surveillance are not new in the academic literature and mass market media, the current threat is however greater. Technology has advanced to the point where George Orwell’s dystopian ‘Big Brother’ vision of a totalitarian state is possible. Because of technology advances, barriers associated with collecting and processing real-time data about many millions of individuals have been removed. This article explores how the capture and use of new data streams, and processing with AI and predictive analytics can support government control of its citizens. Some components of a system for thought control and real-time surveillance are already in use. These components like cameras, sensors, No SQL databases, predictive analytics, and arti cial intelligence can be connected and improved. Decision support researchers must understand the issues and resist attempts to use information technologies to support current or future totalitarian governments.

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578-588
Collins, D.

The nancial crisis which began in 2008 has had catastrophic consequences for many people, communities, businesses and countries. Failures in nancial regulation contributed signi cantly to the crisis. Regulatory convergence is seen as necessary to prevent a recurrence of the regulatory failures which contributed to the crisis. This paper o ers a maturity model to assess the data collection capabilities of nancial regulators, enable comparisons of these capabilities and thereby contribute to regulatory convergence. The model provides one small piece of the toolset needed to reduce the risk of future nancial crises.

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589-596
Costello, J.

This practitioner presentation answers the 6 honest men questions in relation to the data governance of Irish food reputation and safety.

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597-604
Drummond, K.

Delays in detecting and addressing defects typically results in higher costs to a business. Having a 360o view of defects helps a business determine the next steps needed to minimise the impact that defects have on customers and costs to the business. This project has provided an addition of a data model for part defect-tracking through the lifecycle of a product.

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605-613
Law, J. and O’Malley, A.

The problems with the poor use of project data include: i. lack of visibility and transparency of what is being worked on; ii. differing understanding of purpose across the project team;iii. silo’d and individual work patterns; and iv. ‘watermeloning’, described as the reporting of project status and progress as green or to plan when the project is red, behind plan. Through the successful development and implementation of a Visual Project Status Wall, it was shown how the problems could be addressed by increasing transparency and collaboration in the project team. The Visual Project Status Wall is a low delity, exible, interactive, visual and data rich artefact that can be quickly adapted to the changing needs of a project team. A set of critical success factors were identi ed that can be applied by practitioners to the use of Visual Project Status Walls on other transformation programmes.

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614-621
Magee, B.

Data visualization is a key tool to drive both end user adoption and change management activities within data initiatives and especially so in sales environments. Data is as much a part of the problem as the solution itself. There’s too much of it, it’s di cult to interpret and sellers hold on to tactical workload out of distrust in the data systems they are provided with. A data-driven approach to the sales engagement cycle can fundamentally improve performance. Using an analytical approach to determine client needs and sales ‘signals’, sales engagement can be tuned to be in sync with market needs. However, a range of technical, organisational and cultural issues need to be addressed before such a solution can truly start to deliver results. A prototype has been developed and implemented within IBM Digital Sales Europe to test the e ectiveness of a data-driven approach to territory management. This practitioner focussed paper looks at the impact on business results that the programme used to introduce such new territory management methods had.It uses the 6 wise men approach to consider the nature of the problem and where the initiative directly impacted outcomes. Its answers questions on (1) what was the data driven initiative being implemented, (2) why it was important, (3) how it was implemented, (4) when it took place, (5) who has bene ted and (6) where business value was created. This paper concludes that data initiatives require considerable transformation e ort to be successful. Moreover, it identi es that there is a broad range of bene ts available beyond the immediate territory management e ectiveness of a data-driven client selection methodology.

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622-631
O’Driscoll, K.

Requirements analysis is an integral part of the development of Information Systems, and is essential to ensure that the system delivers the expected bene ts. However, it is not a straightforward process, and the fact that Information Systems are used by humans introduces the human factors of complexity and unpredictability. This paper puts forward a requirements analysis process which involves the application of agile and design thinking to business oriented data modelling.

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632-638
Sammon, D., McNulty, J. and Sugrue, A.

This paper reports on the use of business process review workshops to facilitate collaborative engagement for requirements gathering as part of a business transformation project. The workshops produced a visual output of the design of a ‘to-be’ data driven business process for application processing of international applicants in a university environment. The resulting visual artefacts de ning the ‘to-be’ data driven business process would suggest that business stakeholders can contribute more to business transformation projects than they themselves may realise.

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639-646